INTERNAL (or parenthetical) CITATIONS



One analyst has argued that A Nation at Risk, the report that sparked the educational reform movement of the I 980s, was flawed because it tried to generalize all of the nation's schools and students into a single mold, thus shifting the focus "from the local school to a muddy abstraction labeled American Education" (Holton 25).

Documentation is needed because the writer has quoted a source verbatim. The parenthetical citation includes the author's name and the page from which the quotation was taken. To find complete bibliographical information on the source, the reader would look under "Holton" in the "References" section at the end of the paper (see page 80). The same form would be used in the case of an editor or translator. Notice that the citation appears after the quotation marks but before the final period.


Holton has criticized A Nation at Risk because it tried to generclize all of the notion's schools and students into a single mold, thus shifting the focus "from the local school to a muddy cbstraction labeled American Education" (25).

Since the author's last name is used in the sentence, only the page number needs to be cited in the parentheses.


Holton has found much to criticize in A Nation at Risk the report that sparked the educational reform movement of the 1980s.

In this passage, reference is made only to the central idea of Holton's article. Since the sentence includes the author's name, no parenthetical citation is required. If the name had not been included, however, a citation would have to be provided.

REMEMBER: in all cases, the full bibliographic information must be provided in the "References" section-or else the parenthetical citation is meaningless.



1. IF YOU CITE a work that has a corporate author (produced by an organization, not an individual), try to mention the name of the corporate author in the sentence since it will probably be too long to fit into a parenthetic citation without breaking the rhythm of your writing.

According to the National Commission on Educational Excellence, "the educational foundations of our society ore presently being eroded by a rising tide of mediocrity..." (5).

2. IF YOU CITE A SOURCE that has no author and is listed in your reference list by title, use the title (or, if the title is very long, just the first significant word) in your citation.

Many teachers resisted the Commission's initiatives because they felt that they were not given the freedom or resources to meet the new expectations (Teachers 17).

3. IF YOU CITE A SOURCE in a multi-volume work, supply the author's name, followed by the volume number, a colon, and the page number.

According to the Encyclopedia of Philosophy, determinism is the idea that "for everything that ever happens there are conditions such that, given them, nothing else could happen" (Edwards 2:359).

4. IF YOU CITE A SOURCE WITH MORE THAN ONE AUTHOR, include all the names in the parenthetical reference if there are three or fewer; if there are more than three, give only the first author's name followed by "and others" and the page number.

One significant lasting effect of World War I on European society was greater governmental regulation in the economic sphere (Palmer and Colton 683).

The traditional Chinese village, which remained essentially unaltered until the middle of the twentieth century, represents one of the most sta ble socio-economic institutions in history (Winks and others 382).

5. IF YOU CITE A SOURCE that is one of two or more works by the same author that are part of your reference list, include the title (or a shortened form of the title) in the citation to avoid confusion.

6. IF YOU CITE MATERIAL that is quoted in another source (and you have not consulted the original source) use "qtd. [quoted] in."

Terrel Bell confessed: I was one of those naive thinkers who thought that the report would do more for those who desperately needed education, and they are the ones that we have not touched" (qtd. in Beck 54).

7. IF YOU CITE A POEM OR CLASSIC DRAMA IN VERSE, refer to acts, scenes, and lines instead of pages. Traditionally, acts and scenes are referred to with Roman numerals (capital and lower case, respectively), while lines are referred to with Arabic numerals.

According to Macbeth, life is a "a tole/Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury,/Signifying nothing" (V.v.26-28).



The following annotated model reference page derives in part from the same student paper on which the above examples of citation form were based.



Beck, Melinda. "A Nation Still at Risk." Newsweek 2 May 1988: 54-55.

Bowen, Irza. "A New Battle over School Reform: Criticism Greets a Tough

Report on Progress in U.S. Classrooms." Time 9 May 1988: 21-23.

Hill, David. "What Has the 1 980's Reform Movement Accomplished?" The Education Digest February 1990: 3-6.

Holton, Gerald. "A Nation at Risk Revisited." Daedalus Fall 1984:127.

Miller, Julie. "Schools, Choices, and Tax Dollars." New York Times 21 Jan 1996, final ed.: 13CN1. The New York Times Ondisc. CD-ROM. 5 July 1996.

Swallow, Ryan and Alyssa. "Ryan & Allyssa's Links for Kids." Online. Available http-.// 1 Aug 1995.

The National Commission on Excellence in Education. A Nation at Risk: The full Account. Cambridge, Massachusetts: U.S.A. Research, 1984.

"Teachers Give Poor Marks to School Reform Drive." New York Times 24 May 1988 sec. 1:17


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